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    Tracing global lithium flow: A trade-linked material flow analysis

    [题名]GHG Emissions from the Production of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles in China

    [期刊]Resources, Conservation & Recycling 124 (2017) 50-61

    [作者]Xin Sun, Han Hao*, Fuquan Zhao, Zongwei Liu

    [摘要]Lithium is an indispensable ingredient for the next-generation clean technologies. With the aim of identifying opportunities to improve lithium resource efficiency, this study establishes a trade-linked material flow analysis framework to analyze the lithium flow both along its life cycle on the national level and international trade on the global level. The results indicate that global lithium production reached 171 kt lithium carbonate equivalent in 2014. Chile, Australia and China played the leading roles in lithium commodity production. 75% of lithiumion batteries are used for consumer electronics. From the international trade perspective, the trade of lithium commodities existed commonly all around the world. The major origins of lithium minerals and chemicals were Chile, Australia and Argentina. China was the major destination of lithium minerals and chemicals. Lithium carbonate, ores, and lithium concentrate were the three dominating trade commodities, altogether accounting for 67% of total trade volume. This study implies high necessity of establishing domestic lithium recycling system and international cooperation between trade partners in lithium waste management.

    [关键词]Lithium, Material flow analysis, International trade


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